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Tactics for CSIA L3 Teaching Component

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(@geepers)
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Some items and queries from recent weeks on snow preparing for CSIA L3 teaching assessment. Not having worked as an instructor I found this challenging. (Then again, only 3 of 15 full time instructors passed their teach so it's probably a challenge regardless.)

What I think I learnt:

1. Some quick intro to show you are aware of learning contract and need to review the situation, and depending on where you are in order of people being assessed. Seems to work best by making some assumptions: "Had a chance to meet each of you, Fred, Mary, Joe, on the chair on the way up. Saw you'd already had a warm up run and you're  keen to get into advanced parallels on this great snow. Let's head to xyz run and on the way focus on getting mobile in your joints. Follow me." (If you have a naturally quiet voice speak up - oldies can be hard of hearing.)    

2. Assess the students before proposing any ski improvement drills. Would seem straightforward but some folk went, bang, into a drill. Didn't seem to work.

3. When assessing, give the students parameters in which to perform the task that will be assessed. For example: "Advanced parallel turns, at a constant advanced speed, 1/3 of the width of this run, rounded turn shape throughout - watch my demo." Then there's something to assess against - did they maintain speed / turn shape / track width? If not, why not?

4. Assess students one at a time (to prevent own confusion), over enough turns to get a good look at their skiing, and give brief, immediate feedback. If doing this as a question best not allow the witness to deny reality. "Did you notice your track width getting wider and wider down the run? That's from ..." Brevity seems to be favoured.

Aside: If there's a good skier who doesn't seem to have any flaws, try something to help them get more performance out of the skis and suggest they make their next assessed run more exciting. If they keep pushing, eventually something may be revealed. ? 

5. Pick an appropriate drill - same drill for everyone. There's not enough time to demo / perform individual drills. Describe what we are all going to do. Describe how we are going to do it. Tell them why we are going to be doing it, relating in the appropriate CSIA Tech Ref Point and the skiing. Provide an individual focus for each student.

WHW-IF. (What / How / Why / Individual Focus)/

Example: "On the green here on the way to the chair we are going to do an avalment drill. We imagine we are skiing over a bump. As we go over the bump we'll flex our joints to absorb it and then on the downside we'll extend our legs to the side as we turn our skis as if we're skiing into the trough after the bump. We're doing this as we need to use all our joints to maintain our balance when skiing, and that's especially true in the bumps. Getting our joints mobile is going to help us stay in balance. Mary, your focus is on the range of movement - big as you can make it - as you tend to have restricted movement. Joe, focus on extending your legs on the downside of the imaginary bump as you tend to keep absorbing without extending until there's nothing left. Fred, your mobility was good. Try doing as many of these as you can down this little pitch. Everyone have a focus? Ok, the drill looks like this..." Then do a kick-butt drill with commentary if necessary. "Absorb, extend, absorb, extend..."

6. Watch them doing the drill and give feedback and/or vary the drill to get the required result. Example: One person had us doing inside leg turns as an AP drill. Some students had problems getting the new inside ski to come around so she had us hop into the start of the turn to get the idea before returning to the original drill. Ask a focused question of each skier on what you observe: "Mary, do you feel you are absorbing/extending over the full range of your movement?" Asking: "How does that feel?" without some specific focus apparently does not go down well. Ask only one question - this isn't a cross-examination.

7. Where there's time for more, vary the same drill - different speed / pitch / shape /etc rather than go off into a whole new drill. Less stuff seems to be better.

Of course the drill and feedback needs to be appropriate to getting a better ski outcome for each.... it's not as easy as some people make it look.  ?  

 

Ok, now some questions:

a. Noticed that the 3 people who passed the teaching did reasonably challenging drills - in 2 cases that was inside leg turns for AP. Is the difficulty of the drill taken into account when assessing? This is an advanced class.

b. Trade-off between brevity and a more complete explanation. Which way to lean?

 

Would like to hear from others on what they have learnt. And from skinerd in terms of what he's looking for as an assessor.

 

 


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(@skinerd)
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@geepers... I would say the biggest thing candidates miss is the WHY? They fail to set a clear objective and then help their students understand how this new move will actually help them reach that objective... and know when they've got it right.

It looks to me like you have a pretty good grasp on the format, I would just ensure your feedback is specific (I would probably avoid blanket statements like "focus on mobility in the joints"). 

I'll try to break down my recipe for success below. The order doesn't need to be quite as regimented as this but it might help to organize things in your mind.

Step 1

Based on the 'students' and 'situation' set a skiing objective. Speed, turn shape, level of ski performance etc.

Step 2

Assess whether skiers are meeting the objective or not. If not, use the 'technical reference' to determine what move you need to add to their skiing.

Step 3

Individual Development

WHAT - Give each individual a specific move to add to their skiing (eg. flex/extend ankle more, extend/bend knee more, turn leg in hip socket, roll foot this way etc)

WHEN - There is usually a timing/intensity/duration element to the move (eg. in the fall line, as you approach the bump, at the end of the turn etc.)

HOW - Give them some sort of cue. What might it feel like to them when they make this move? (Eg. you might feel shin pressure on the front of your boots when you flex your ankle... or you might feel pressure under this part of your foot).

WHY - What sort of results should they expect if they get it right? and how will this lead them to the objective? (Eg. Notice how when you make that move your skis tip further up on edge. This will help you grip the snow and tighten the arc).

At this point I often get students to show me they understand what I mean before I even get them to try it in a turn. (Eg. Stationary attempt of the move)

Step 4

Let them try it within the objective turn shape... re-assess and help them 'reflect' on their performance. Questions work well but only if you've primed them. (Eg. Discuss the cue they were trying to feel. Did they feel it or not? How much, how often etc.)

Did the ski interact differently with the snow when they felt the cue? (eg. did they achieve more grip? YES or NO?) Did their sensations meet your observations? IF the answers are all YES for both parties (they usually aren't), then maybe you've found a cue that works for that person and they can understand how and why it works.... and repeat it!

If not, vary it (I see a lot of people actually make the student ski worse initially... that's fine, it's an experiment and it happens to me all the time... but you need to address it).

Step 5

Stick with the same focus for that student but continue to re-assess and re-develop to find the cue that actually works for them. A drill can be useful. Just remember drills are only a tool to help students find a cue that helps them make a particular move. 

The WHAT, WHEN, HOW & WHY  focus for each individual still has to be there within the drill. I would stick with just one drill but often you can adapt the drill slightly for the specific movement pattern each person needs to develop.

Step 6

Once they've 'acquired' the move and can understand how it affects the outcome, it's time to 'consolidate' it with guided mileage or 'refine' it with challenge and more variation.

Step 7

Debrief


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(@skinerd)
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Posted by: geepers

Ok, now some questions:

a. Noticed that the 3 people who passed the teaching did reasonably challenging drills - in 2 cases that was inside leg turns for AP. Is the difficulty of the drill taken into account when assessing? This is an advanced class.

b. Trade-off between brevity and a more complete explanation. Which way to lean?

A - Some course conductors may disagree but personally don't think the drill you choose (if you choose one at all) is terribly important. A hockey stop might help one person lead the turn with the lower body and encourage the next person to lead it with the upper body. It's how you develop it that is important.

Yes, it's an advanced class so there needs to be some advanced level skiing in it, but if the drill helps the student make the specific move they need to reach the objective... then it's a good drill. 

B - Lesson pace is a very important part of the 'learning contract' and can be a tough balancing. It's different for every person. The key is to make sure your students are engaged and developing a clear understanding, while still getting enough mileage to put those new moves into practise... and have some fun along the way (which is really the point of skiing after all).


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(@geepers)
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Thanks, skinerd. Excellent write-up - will add more depth to interactions with students.

Now to get some practice diagnosing and experimenting for improvements...

BTW got your avalment drill from P2P2. Simulating bump skiing on the flat (next best thing to actual bumps)  and the opportunity to utilise the green parts of the run. Hard not to like a drill like that. ? 

 

 


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(@calvert1)
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Here we go. Feedback anyone?

Intro

Hi I’m Garry

-Everyone give me your name , where your from and a brief ski history.

-Does anyone have any health issues I need to be aware of?

-I am blind in my left eye so please, no-one pas me on my left side or I will most likely run you down.

-Did everyone do an equipment check?

 

Today we are working on short turns.

-Our objective is of course parallel skiing with a round rhythmical turn shape in a corridor of about 1 cat track (3-4 meters) at an advanced, up tempo, consistent speed. (I.e. one count tap, tap, tap on poles)

 

If I’m first, will do a short warm up on snow at top of lift. Small muscle activation, skate (3-4 minutes). This will help wake up all our joints and muscles that we need for success.

Let’s warm up down here on skis, we’ll do about 20 or so turns. Start at a slower pace for 3 turns, pick it up for 3 more turns, by the time your at 12 you should be at your comfortable advanced speed and I want you to hold that to where I stop. Leave 6 turns from the skier in front of you before the next one starts.

Any questions?

 

Wow that was exhilarating. Why so serious looking? Don’t we ski because it’s fun? Maybe tell your face to smile.

-I would like to have a closer look at everyone.

-On this next pitch I want you to focus on what you think you need to do to push the snow spray sideways as opposed to down the hill in the turn.

Think on what movements you need to do to accomplish this. Pushing the snow sideways will be the result of how we move.

Just a tip, an aggressive pole plant will help with our timing.

 

Assess

 

Tom: I noticed your stance is a bit off sometimes your fwd with over flexed ankles causing your tails to wash and when aft you loose steering effort. Did you notice this?

- At the beginning of the turn you should feel some contact on the shin and front of the boot. In the meat of the turn , you should feel balance more in the centre of the boot in the arch at the front of the heel. (need to be active in all joints and muscles)

If you are more centered in the boot you will be balanced and be able to create separation and angulation for edge grip which will allow the ski design work.

 

Cathy: Did you feel your turn was kind of schmeared? Looks like you have a little upper body rotation which will cause you to loose grip.

We need to quiet the upper body and initiate the turn with the lower body in particular turning the leg in the hip socket like this. This will set you up for upper lower body separation and angulation to engage the ski edge for grip.

 

Ken: Nice edge control. I noticed grip for most of the turn maybe a tad slippy at the top. Do you concur? Lets try for earlier angulation which will allow good edge grip throughout the turn.

 

Bill: Looks like you were gaining speed. Is this what you noticed? I want you to try to work on a rounder turn shape by more steering of the edged ski across the fall line. This will control your forward momentum.

 

OK Lets do an exercise to build on these technical points we talked about.

-Everyone to try to hop straight up and down. If you are in balance how will your skis look compared to the snow. Tips down fwd. Heels down aft. Parallel to snow good.

-Now lets try in a short traverse turn and do the other way.

-Now try hop turn skis and land on the edges, steering edged skis around the turn.

Go back to each and confirm new feelings. I noticed the hop helped with…Did you notice …?

Do static i.e. Tug for angulation, sep and grip. Physically put hips in right direction. Feel pinch? These are some of the feelings you should feel. If you feel this you can engage the ski edge and steer for the desired result.

 

A thought here, is it easier to edge a turned ski or steer an edged ski?

Static demo ski boot on snow step down foot sideways, do arc in snow turning leg in hip.

 

Lets put this back in our skiing now again lets try to push the snow spay laterally not down the hill.

 

Time permitting I will have a ski. Give a few tips relating to technical reference everyone working on or go straight into doing the next pitch thinking of using 2 fall lines. This will assist you in achieving an early edge and angulation for a continued edged steering effort to the transition.

Give static demo in boots turn in one fall line or turn two moving laterally landing on edge of new outside boot.


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(@calvert1)
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REVISED LESSON PLAN L3 short turns

Intro

Hi I’m Garry

-Everyone give me your name , where your from and a brief ski history.

-Does anyone have any health issues I need to be aware of?

-Myself I am blind in my left eye so please, no-one pas me on my left side or I will most likely run you down. In fact, don’t pass me unless I ask you to.

-Did everyone do an equipment check?

 

Today we are working on short turns.

-Our objective is parallel skiing with a round rhythmical turn shape in a corridor of about 1 cat track (3-4 meters) at an advanced, up tempo, consistent speed. (I.e. one count tap, tap, tap on poles)

 

If I’m first, will do a short warm up on snow at top of lift. Small muscle activation, few minutes tops . This will help wake up all our joints and muscles that we need for success.

-Let’s warm up down here on skis, we’ll do about 20 or so turns. Start at a slower pace for 3 turns, pick it up for 3 more turns, by the time your at 12 you should be at your comfortable advanced speed and I want you to hold that to where I stop. Leave 6 turns from the skier in front of you before the next one starts.

-Make sure you look up hill and ensure it’s safe to go and stop below the group.

Any questions?

 

Wow that was exhilarating. Why so serious looking? Are you guys having fun? Yea, how about telling your face, lets have some smiles. (Maybe maybe not can’t decide.)

-I would like to have a closer look at everyone.

-On this next pitch I want you to focus on what you think you need to do to push the snow spray sideways as opposed to down the hill in the turn.

Think on what movements you need to do to accomplish this. Pushing the snow sideways will be the result of how we move. I want you to be aware this snow is a little challenging with soft spots and slush piles so you are going to have to have an engaged core and be mobile with your feet to stop getting thrown fore and aft. Further down the pitch changes so you will have to adjust your turn shape to maintain a consistent speed.

Just a tip, an aggressive pole plant will help with our timing.

 

Assess

There are a few technical points we need to consider.

We need to be centered and mobile on our skies using all the joints and muscles to set us up for the next moves, we need to lead the turn with the lower body which will allow us to achieve separation and angulation for better edge control.

Tom: I noticed your stance is a bit off sometimes, your fwd with over flexed ankles causing your tails to wash. Did you notice this?

- At the beginning of the turn you should feel some contact on the shin and front of the boot. In the meat of the turn , you should feel balance more in the centre of the boot in the arch at the front of the heel. (need to be active in all joints and muscles)

If you are more centered in the boot you will be balanced and be able to create separation and angulation for edge grip which will allow the skis to do more work.

 

Cathy: Did you feel your turn was kind of schmeared? Looks like you have a little upper body rotation which will cause you to loose grip.

We need to quiet the upper body and initiate the turn with the lower body, in particular turning the leg in the hip socket like this. This will set you up for upper lower body separation and angulation to engage the ski edge for grip.

 

Ken: Nice edge control. I noticed grip for most of the turn maybe a tad slippy at the top. Do you concur? Lets try for earlier angulation which will allow good edge grip throughout the turn.

 

Bill: Looks like you were gaining speed. Is this what you noticed? I want you to try to work on a rounder turn shape by more steering effort of the edged ski across the fall line. This will control your forward momentum.

 

OK Lets do an exercise to build on these technical points we talked about.

-Everyone to try to hop straight up and down. If you are in balance how will your skis look compared to the snow. Tips down fwd. Heels down aft. Parallel to snow good.

-Lets start in the fall line and turn to the left, initiate the new right turn by hopping and turning the skis, landing on the new edges and steering to a stop.

*a note here, do not try to hop off a dead ski. For success the ski needs to have an engaged edge.

*DO I add in here: This will improve balance and mobility to be centered, initiate turning with lower body, allow for separation and angulation which will get you more edge and grip.

-Now try it the other way.

-Do a few each way if got it, carry on.

 

Go back to each and confirm new feelings. I noticed the hop helped with…Did you notice …?

Do static i.e. Tug for angulation, sep and grip. Physically put hips in right direction. Feel pinch? These are some of the feelings you should feel. If you feel this you can engage the ski edge and steer for the desired result.

-Now lets link these into a series of hop turns landing on the new edges and steering through the arc to the next transition (hop).

(A thought here, is it easier to edge a turned ski or steer an edged ski?

Static demo ski boot on snow step down foot sideways, do arc in snow turning leg in hip.)GET RID OF I THINK??

 

Lets put this back in our skiing now again lets try to push the snow spay laterally not down the hill. Remember short turn skiing is dynamic and exciting, let have some fun with this.

 

Time permitting I will have a ski. Give a few tips relating to technical reference everyone working on or go straight into doing the next pitch thinking of using 2 fall lines about a foot and a half apart. This will assist you in achieving an early edge and angulation for a continued edged steering effort to the transition and pushing the snow spray laterally.

Give static demo in boots turn in one fall line or turn two moving laterally landing on edge of new outside boot.


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(@skinerd)
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Before I dig in... a short disclaimer. I think it's really helpful to go through these hypothetical situations, but for anyone reading this please keep in mind that it is just an exercise to help develop an understanding of  the methodology expected. In reality (and in an exam) your lessons require real time decision making and you will need to be prepared to adapt on the fly based on the students and the situation. (Eg... If it's a powder day don't insist on that braquage drill you had planned for jimmy;)

With regards to the above plan @calvert1

Looks like a pretty solid hypothetical lesson provided the assessments are accurate.

When getting into 'reflective learning,' I would avoid asking questions that your students haven't been primed for, otherwise you probably won't get the answers you're fishing for. Remember the main goal here is to help your student develop a new movement pattern in order to achieve the objectives you set.

To do this you need to help them find some cues that works for them as an individual. This is where questioning can come in handy. For example, you could suggest the student feel more pressure under the heel at the end of the turn (an internal cue) and the result you expect from this is something measurable (or at least observable) like the ski gripping and the arc tightening as the skis steer out of the fall line. Now when you watch them experiment with this cue, you can observe whether the arc actually is tightening as the skis steer out of the fall line or not... and THEN ask them if they felt more pressure under the heel at the end of the turn. This way it's black and white. Did they feel it? Yes, No, Sometimes? And then you can determine whether that was an effective cue for them by comparing their responses with your observations. 

The tricky part is getting them to correlate the cue with the result so they know when they're making the move and they can reproduce it. This way it will stick with them and they continue to develop on their own after the lesson.

If their responses don't match your observations then it doesn't mean you should change the focus. You still want to develop the same movement pattern for that person... but you'll probably need to adjust your approach slightly to find a different cue that resonates with them. Or perhaps they just need to feel more of it, less of it or adjust the timing of it etc.


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(@geepers)
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Welcome calvert1 and thanks for your input here. 

I make a lot of use of scripts, plans and frameworks in my business (training/coaching small business). For example providing a phone answering script for a new receptionist means they can professionally handle most incoming calls with just a short amount of training as they learn who's who in the business. (Well, it will certainly be more professional than some-one new picking up the phone and timidly saying "Hello".) 

Skinerd's point ("...lessons require real time decision making and you will need to be prepared to adapt on the fly based on the students and the situation") is also incredibly valid. In my L3 assess I was down to teach bumps. And unfortunately the groomers had flattened all the real bump runs.  ? Right there I should have switched to an all terrain lesson. I stuck with 'bumps' (because I've really no idea how to conduct an all terrain lesson) and had to request my students pick a line that took them over the bumps that were available. They were obliging enough however it wasn't quite the scene I had in mind.

I figure there are parts of an L3 assess lesson that can be prepared in advance since we'd typically be asked to teach one of the following lessons:

  1. Advanced parallel
  2. Shorts
  3. Bumps
  4. All terrain

Any others??

So my plan for next time is to have in my head brief and succinct wording to introduce each of those lessons, taking into account the conditions (not going to send everyone whizzing about at high speed into limited vis and/or crowded slopes), to set an objective. And also intros to a suite of relevant drills for each of those lessons so I can select one which seems appropriate for the group based on the assessment.

After that it's the framework that skinerd is steering us towards for linking the drill to the individual student and providing feedback.

One thing I did learn - even though L3 candidates will typically be strong skiers don't assume they are going to be able to execute a drill. Best to have some variations in mind to assist students to take the drill on board.

This is pretty much what I expect a working ski instructor would learn on the job over one or more seasons. It would be neat to be able to do it that way however circumstances and advancing years are not helping. So be interesting to see how much preparation can quicken the process.


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(@calvert1)
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Thanks Geepers

Great feedback. 

I have found throughout my life that to succeed you need to be passionate, knowledgeable and confident in your your chosen path. 

I am beginning to think of the teach like developing an emergency response plan. Prepare for different scenarios (turn shapes). Practice different drills to develop the technical reference points until they’re natural. Throw in some variables (such as you described) to prep for adapting on the fly. 

Practice until it’s second nature. I think understanding the process and  being prepared instills confidence  

Cheers 


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(@geepers)
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So let's keep this rolling.

Whilst waiting for some Australian snow I'm going through youtube ski tip/example videos, sorting the wheat from the chaff and trying to get a collection of worthwhile items into playlists. Focused on the CSIA L3 so it's a pretty much IP, AP, Shorts, Bumps categories. Looking for both ski improvement and help with instructing. There's a lot of good stuff out there - eg skinerd's youtube on dolphin turns is unmatched on that particular topic.  (Also a lot of questionable material - there are some, ah, unusual ideas out there about skiing. ? )  

BTW do you mind me asking what point you are up to wrt instructing/quals? Are you working as an instructor? Already had a go for L3 or planning to next season?   


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(@calvert1)
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I instruct part time. Finished L3 ski, did not pass teach. I’m planning to review videos this summer to hone my assessment skills, and do some imaginary lessons. Luckily I have a couple of people to draw on to keep me on track. 


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Assessments seem to be the sticking point for most people. If you're confident with your assessment then the rest of the teaching formula is relatively straight forward.... and I think you're starting to get a pretty good handle on that @Calvert1

I need to get some folks to volunteer as lab rats so we can get some video examples of each symptom for the assessment tool. 


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(@geepers)
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Posted by: calvert1

I instruct part time. Finished L3 ski, did not pass teach. I’m planning to review videos this summer to hone my assessment skills, and do some imaginary lessons. Luckily I have a couple of people to draw on to keep me on track. 

Getting the L3 ski is freakn awesome - well done!


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(@geepers)
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Posted by: Skinerd

Assessments seem to be the sticking point for most people. If you're confident with your assessment then the rest of the teaching formula is relatively straight forward.... and I think you're starting to get a pretty good handle on that @Calvert1

I need to get some folks to volunteer as lab rats so we can get some video examples of each symptom for the assessment tool. 

Yep, assessment is the crux. Hard to short cut too - have to understand what we're really seeing in the student's skiing.

Feel free to use any vid I post if you can find any segments that don't cause too much eye strain. Will attempt to get better footage this southern season. 

 


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Thanks Garry and Geepers for offering yourselves up for dissection. 


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